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Various investment options in real estate



In this era where property is fast becoming an asset, property ownership has become very important element of wealth creation. Buying real estate can be more than just finding a place to call home. Most people have to do a real estate transaction at some point in their lives, and some find it an intriguing opportunity for capturing and creating value. Real estate has become a common investment vehicle, and it continues to be popular despite the very rocky market correction in 2007-09.

Although the real estate market has plenty of opportunities for making a profit, buying and owning real estate can be a lot more complicated than investing in stocks and bonds.


The Power of Leverage in Real Estate

Before we dive into types of real estate investments, it is worth looking at one of the main attractions it holds for investors. Investing in real estate gives you one tool that is not as easily available to stock market investors: leverage. If you want to buy a stock, you have to pay the full value of the stock at the time you place the buy order. But for mortgage, it requires a 20% to 25% down payment. However, depending on where you live, there are many types of mortgages that require as little as 5% down. This means that you can control the whole property and the equity it holds by only paying a fraction of the total value up front.

This is what emboldens both real estate flippers and landlords. They can take out a second mortgage on their homes and put down payments on two or three other properties. Whether they rent these out so that income from tenants pays the mortgage or wait for an opportunity to sell for a profit, they control these assets, despite having only staked a small part of the total value.


Below are some basic real estate investments.

Being a landlord

Ideal For: People with DIY and renovation skills and an aptitude for dealing with tenants.

Rental real estate is an investment as old as land ownership. Basically, you buy a property and rent it out to a tenant. The owner is now a landlord, responsible for paying the mortgage, taxes and costs of maintaining the property. Ideally, the landlord charges enough rent to cover all of the aforementioned costs with enough left over to produce a monthly profit right from the start. However, depending on the rental market, a landlord may have to be patient and only charge enough rent to cover expenses or even take a loss to keep a property occupied. Although this can be uncomfortable and requires a capital cushion to absorb periods of loss, landlords tend to invest for the long term. After all, once the mortgage has been paid on a rental property, the majority of the rent becomes profit.

Of course, the monthly income from a property is not the only focus of a landlord. As with all real estate, the property can appreciate over the course of the mortgage, leaving the landlord with a more valuable asset.


There are, of course, blemishes on the face of what seems like an ideal investment. You can end up with a bad tenant who damages the property or, worse still, end up having no tenant at all. This leaves you with a negative monthly cash flow, meaning that you might have to scramble to cover your mortgage payments. There is also the matter of finding the right property. You will want to pick an area where vacancy rates are low and choose a place that people will want to rent.

Perhaps the biggest difference between a rental property and other investments is the amount of time and work you have to devote to maintaining your investment. When you buy a stock, it simply sits in your brokerage account and, one hopes, increases in value. If you invest in a rental property, you also acquire the mountain of responsibilities that come with being a landlord. When the furnace stops working in the middle of the night, it’s you who gets the phone call. If you don’t mind handyman work, this may not bother you. Otherwise, a professional property manager would be glad to take the problem off your hands – for a price, of course.


Real Estate Investment Groups

Ideal For: People who want to hold rental real estate without the headache of running it.

Real estate investment groups are similar to a small mutual fund for rental properties. If you want to own a rental property, but don’t want the hassle of being a landlord, a real estate investment group may be the solution for you.

In a typical real estate investment group, a company will buy or build a set of apartment blocks or condos, then allow investors to buy them through the company, thus joining the group. A single investor can own one or multiple units of self-contained living space, but the company operating the investment group collectively manages all the units, taking care of maintenance, advertising vacant units and interviewing tenants. In exchange for this management, the company takes a percentage of the monthly rent.

There are several versions of investment groups, but in the standard version the lease is in the investor’s name and all of the units pool a portion of the rent to guard against occasional vacancies, meaning that you will receive some income even if your unit is empty. As long as the vacancy rate for the pooled units doesn’t spike too high, there should be enough to cover costs. In extreme cases investors may be asked to pay back in if costs exceed income for a longer period of time.

Of course, the quality of an investment group depends entirely on the company offering it. In theory it is a safe way to get into real estate investment, but real estate investment groups are vulnerable to the same fees that haunt the mutual fund industry. More important, they are sometimes private investments where unscrupulous management teams take investors for a ride and leave them with nothing but legal proceedings to look forward to. To avoid unpleasant surprises, it is critical to do your research on the company and conduct a thorough review of the details in the investment offering.


Real Estate Trading (Better Known as Flipping)

Ideal For: People with significant experience in real estate valuation and marketing.

Real estate trading is the wild side of real estate investment. Like day traders, who are distinct from buy-and-hold investors, real estate traders are an entirely different breed from buy-and-rent landlords. Real estate traders buy properties with the intention of holding them for a short period of time, often no more than three to four months, after which they hope to sell them for a profit. This technique is also called flipping properties and is based on buying properties that are either significantly undervalued or in a very hot market.

Pure property flippers will often forgo putting any money into a house for improvements; the investment has to have the intrinsic value to turn a profit without alteration or they won’t consider it. Flipping in this manner is a short-term cash investment. To take advantage of potentially large returns, flippers have to have cash on hand or access to other people’s money, as traditional financing doesn’t generally work for this type of transaction.

If a property flipper gets caught in a situation where he or she can’t unload a property, it can be devastating because these investors generally don’t keep enough uncommitted cash to pay the mortgage on a property for the long term. This can lead to continued losses for a real estate trader who is unable to off-load the property in a bad market.

A second class of property flipper also exists. These investors make their money by buying reasonably priced properties and adding value by renovating them. This can be a longer-term investment depending on the extent of the improvements. The limiting feature of this investment is that it is time intensive and often only allows investors to take on one or two properties at a time.


Real Estate Investment Trusts (REITs)

Ideal For: Investors who want portfolio exposure to real estate without having to go through a traditional real estate transaction.

Real estate has been around since our cave-dwelling ancestors started chasing strangers out of their space, so it’s not surprising that Wall Street has found a way to turn real estate into a publicly traded instrument.

A REIT is created when a corporation (or trust) uses investors’ money to purchase and operate income properties. REITs are bought and sold on the major exchanges, just like any other stock. A corporation must pay out 90% of its taxable profits in the form of dividends to keep its status as a REIT. By doing this REITs avoid paying corporate income tax, whereas a regular company would be taxed on its profits and then have to decide whether or not to distribute its after-tax profits as dividends.

Much like regular dividend-paying stocks, REITs are a solid investment for stock market investors who want regular income. In comparison to the aforementioned types of real estate investment, REITs allow investors into nonresidential investments, such as malls or office buildings that are generally not feasible for individual investors to purchase directly. More important, REITs are highly liquid because they are exchange traded. In other words, you won’t need a realtor and a title transfer to help you cash out your investment.

REITs are, in practice, a more formalized version of a real estate investment group.

When looking at REITs, it is important for an investor to distinguish between equity REITs that own buildings and mortgage REITs that provide financing for real estate and dabble in mortgage-backed securities (MBS). Both offer exposure to real estate, but the nature of the exposure is different. An equity REIT is more traditional, in that it represents ownership in real estate, whereas the mortgage REITs focus on the income from mortgage financing of real estate.

REIT investing isn’t entirely painless, but the research and analysis required is in line with that of any income stock.



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Real Estate

Want to invest in real estate rental? Then know these facts!



Investing in rental real estate looks like a great idea on paper. You just buy a place in a nice area, find tenants and let the cash roll in – right? Well, actually there are some matters you have to consider before buying a property and putting a “for rent” advert on it and in the newspaper (or online). It is advisable to know the pros and cons of owning rental property and understand a few tips on how to turn a profit as a landlord.


Advantages of Rental Real Estate

Many people who feel uncomfortable investing in financial instruments have no qualms about investing in real estate, as it is a tangible asset. This is a psychological distinction, as a bad stock and a bad rental property are equally capable of losing money. That said, here are the advantages that show up on paper:

Current Income. This refers to the rent money that is left over after the mortgage and related expenses have been paid. Current income is basically monthly cash that you did not have to work for – your property produces it for you.

Appreciation. This is the increase in value that properties generally experience as time passes. Appreciation is not guaranteed. However, if you own a property in a stable area (cities), the property will likely increase in value over the years. Even properties in sparsely populated and less desirable areas may appreciate due to general inflation.

Leverage. Rental properties can be purchased with borrowed funds. This means that you can control the whole property and the equity it holds by putting down only a fraction of its total cost – percentage of the total value. Also, the property you purchase secures the debt rather than your other assets. If you fail to keep up the monthly loan payments, you may lose the rental property, but you shouldn’t lose your own home.

Tax Advantages. Your rental income may be tax-free if you do not receive net cash flow after expenses are deducted. This means that your mortgage is being paid down and you own more of the total value of the property (rather than just controlling it), but you do not pay taxes on the money that is doing this for you.

In addition, you can also pull out tax-free money by refinancing your loan if the property appreciates and interest rates have fallen. Lastly, you may be able to avoid paying taxes on the sale of a rental property if you sell it and promptly reinvest the money in another property (called switching or tax-free exchange).


Disadvantages of Rental Real Estate

Liability. What happens if a stair breaks under your tenant’s feet? With the increase in frivolous lawsuits and the impossible to quantify nature of “emotional distress,” liability can be a scary thing. Providing someone with shelter in return for money puts you and the tenant in a relationship where both parties bear responsibility. You have to be certain that the property you are renting out meets all building codes and regulations.

Unexpected Expenses. What do you do when you pull up the basement carpet and find a crack that opens onto the abyss? It is impossible to prepare for every expense related to owning rental property. Boilers, plumbing and fixtures often need to be replaced and are not prohibitively expensive. However, faulty wiring, bad foundations and compromised roofing can be very expensive to repair. If you can’t pay for repairs, you’ll be left without a tenant and with the grim prospect of selling the property at a significant discount. Also, as building codes evolve over time, lead paint, asbestos, cedar roofing tiles and other materials that passed inspection in the past may be reevaluated to your disadvantage.

Bad Tenants. No one wants to have to use a collection agency to collect overdue rent. Unfortunately, almost every landlord has a story that involves police officers or sheriffs escorting his or her tenant out of the property – erasing all hopes of getting the five months’ worth of overdue rent. Bad tenants can also increase your unexpected expenses and even hit you with a lawsuit.

Vacancy. No money coming in means that you have to make monthly payments out of your own pocket. If you have an emergency fund, you will be able to survive vacancies with little trouble. If you don’t have one, you may find yourself scrambling to pay the rent to the harshest landlord of all – the bank.


Tips for Prospective Landlords

Minimizing the disadvantages of owning real estate is actually simple. Here are some guidelines that will help.

Keep Your Expectations Reasonable. Have the goal of positive cash flow, but don’t expect to be purchasing a new yacht at year’s end. If you keep your expectations in check, you won’t be tempted to jack up the rent and push out good tenants.

Find a Balance between Earnings and Effort. Are you planning to be a “hands-on” landlord? Or should you work with a firm? Current income doesn’t seem so great if you are putting in another full-time shift working on your rental property. Happily, there are property management firms that will run your property for a percentage of the rental income; you might consider engaging one.

Know the Rules. Federal and state laws outline your responsibilities and liabilities, so you can’t claim ignorance when something happens. You will have to do some reading; nevertheless, it is better to spend 20 hours in the library than in the courtroom.

Have the Property Inspected. One of the best ways to avoid unexpected expenses is to have the property inspected by a professional before you buy it.

Make Sure Your Leases Are Legal. If you make a mistake on the lease, you will find it more difficult to litigate if a tenant violates the terms.

Call References and Run Credit Checks. Too many landlords rush to fill a vacancy rather than taking the time to make sure the prospective tenant is a better option than an empty property. If you have time, you may want to drive by a prospective tenant’s current living space – that is what your property will probably look like when that tenant lives there.

Join the Landlords’ Association in Your Area. Joining an association will provide you with a wealth of experience as well as sample leases, copies of laws and regulations, and lists of decent lawyers, contractors and inspectors. Some associations may even allow you to join before you buy a rental property.

Make Friends with a Lawyer, a Tax Professional and a Banker. If you find that you like owning rental properties, a network including these three professionals will be essential if you want to increase your holdings.

Make Sure You Have the Right Kind of Insurance. After learning the rules, you will need to buy insurance to cover your liability. You will need the help of an insurance professional to select the proper package for your type of rental property; a plain vanilla homeowner’s policy may not be adequate.

Create an Emergency Fund. This is essentially money earmarked for unexpected expenses that are not covered by insurance. There is no set amount for an emergency fund, but 20% of the value of the property is a good guideline. Nonetheless, anything is better than nothing. If you are getting current income from a property, you can pool that money into the emergency fund.



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