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South African Economy in a tight spot in 2017

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South Africa’s economy continues to be stifled by weak growth on one side and the need for fiscal consolidation on the other. Weak growth links back to tepid external demand, subdued private investment, low business confidence, labor market challenges such as high unemployment and skills shortages, and political uncertainty. While spending on infrastructure and skill development is necessary for long-term economic growth, South Africa needs to exercise fiscal prudence to retain its investment-grade sovereign credit rating.

South Africa’s monetary policy might also tighten in 2017 in response to US monetary tightening. A rating downgrade of South Africa’s sovereign debt, though not that likely in the coming quarters due to a commitment to fiscal consolidation, will imply higher borrowing costs that will put upward pressure on domestic interest rates. Weak growth and tight economic policy make for a difficult economic scenario.

South Africa’s economy continues to be stifled by weak growth on one side and the need for fiscal consolidation on the other. Weak growth links back to tepid external demand, subdued private investment, low business confidence, labor market challenges such as high unemployment and skills shortages, and political uncertainty.

While spending on infrastructure and skill development is necessary for long-term economic growth, South Africa needs to exercise fiscal prudence to retain its investment-grade sovereign credit rating. South Africa’s monetary policy might also tighten in 2017 in response to US monetary tightening.

A rating downgrade of South Africa’s sovereign debt, though not that likely in the coming quarters due to a commitment to fiscal consolidation, will imply higher borrowing costs that will put upward pressure on domestic interest rates. Weak growth and tight economic policy make for a difficult economic scenario.

A slowdown in 2016

The International Monetary Fund (IMF), in its October 2016 outlook, projected a global growth rate of 3.1 percent, slightly slower than 3.2 percent in 2015 and 3.4 percent in 2014. IMF estimates show that the economy of sub-Saharan Africa, one of the fastestgrowing economic regions of the world since 2000, is likely to grow just 1.4 percent in 2016, down sharply from 3.4 percent in the previous year.

A major reason behind the region’s decelerating growth is the slowdown in its two largest economies: Nigeria and South Africa. Both Nigeria and South Africa have come under pressure from slowing global demand and weak commodity prices. According to the IMF, South Africa’s economy is projected to record growth of just 0.1 percent in 2016. In 2016 until the end of Q3, the South African economy grew 0.3 percent: The primary sector (agriculture and mining) shrank 4.8 percent; the secondary sector (manufacturing, construction, and utilities) expanded 0.3 percent; the tertiary sector (wholesale, retail, transport, finance, and government services) expanded 1.2 percent; and taxes (less subsidies) contracted 0.8 percent.

Latest data indicate that on a quarter-overquarter seasonally adjusted annualized basis, economic growth (measured by production) slowed to 0.2 percent in Q3 from 3.5 percent in the previous quarter (figure 1).

Mining was a major contributor to overall growth due to an increase in iron ore production in response to the rising iron ore prices. A recovery in mineral prices could boost future mining activity in the country. General government, finance, real estate, and business services also contributed to overall GDP growth in Q3.

However, agriculture, manufacturing, utilities (electricity, gas, and water), and trade subtracted from overall growth. Agriculture contracted for the seventh straight quarter, as a direct consequence of drought conditions across the country.

Manufacturing contracted after a strong showing in the previous quarters, due to slowing domestic demand and weak trade. A contraction in manufacturing and weak domestic demand is reflected in declining utilities production. Measured by expenditure on GDP, growth in Q3 was 0.5 percent, down from 3.7 percent in the previous quarter. Gross fixed capital formation subtracted 0.2 percent from overall growth in Q3, while exports subtracted 9.0 percent.

Fiscal policy is likely to remain tight in 2017

The most prominent threat to the South African economy in 2016 was a sovereign credit rating downgrade to below investment grade, primarily due to fiscal imbalance (figure 2).

agencies have pegged South Africa’s sovereign credit rating at the lowest investment grade (or just above) with a negative outlook, due to structural imbalances, political instability, and weak business confidence. South Africa is likely to come under the scrutiny of the ratings agencies once again in mid-2017.

The ruling administration has made a commitment to fiscal consolidation. The medium-term budget policy statement (MTBPS), delivered in October 2016, indicates that South Africa’s Ministry of Finance expects the budget deficit for the fiscal year 2016–17 to be 3.4 percent of GDP, slightly lower than 4.2 percent in the previous year. The budget for the next fiscal year (2017–18), presented in February 2017, will likely reinforce a commitment to fiscal discipline in order to negate the threat of a ratings downgrade.

However, political instability and weak economic growth continue to pose risks. On the external front, what might work to South Africa’s advantage (and to the advantage of sub-Saharan Africa) is an uptick in global commodity prices, strengthening economic growth in the United States and Europe and allaying fears of a China hard landing. Internally, boosting domestic investment remains critical to overall growth: Gross fixed capital formation declined 5.2 percent in Q3 on a year-over-year basis, the third straight quarter of decline (figure 3).

Investment in machinery also declined in Q3 for the fourth straight quarter. Business confidence remains low and is likely to weigh on investment decisions. According to the South African Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the average of the business confidence index in 2016 was 93.5, far lower than 100 in 2015 (the base year for the index). Furthermore, monetary policy might also tighten in the near term.

Interest rates could edge up in 2017

The South African Reserve Bank (SARB) might come under pressure to raise the policy interest rate in 2017 in response to the domestic price rise and US Federal Reserve’s tightening monetary policy. The policy repo rate has been held steady at 7.0 percent since a hike in April 2016.

Even though the real effective exchange rate of the South African rand has been on an upward trend since the beginning of 2016, higher interest rates and improved economic performance in the United States are likely to keep the US dollar strong and exert downward pressure on the rand’s recovery.

Other factors likely to contribute to a weaker rand are a widening current account deficit in South Africa and a high inflation differential between the two countries (United States and South Africa). A weaker rand will likely add to inflationary pressure. Another factor likely to contribute to inflation is the higher price of crude oil. Inflation data in each month of 2016 (November 2016 being the latest available data point) was above the SARB’s target inflation range of 3–6 percent (figure 4).

Drought fuelled inflation, resulting in a sharp rise in food prices. If drought conditions abate, resulting in lower overall prices, and if the rand does not weaken considerably, then the SARB might hold the policy repo rate steady in the short term.

However, if interest rates are hiked, they are likely to weigh heavily on alreadyweak business investment and indebted consumers. Household debt in South Africa is roughly 75 percent of disposable income. Despite a decline from the highs of 2008, the level of household debt coupled with tighter monetary policy will likely keep consumer expenditure under pressure.

If South Africa stumbles in its fiscal consolidation plan or falls far short of its GDP growth potential (as it had in 2016), then a ratings downgrade in mid-2017 could result in a steep increase in interest rates and borrowing costs.

South Africa’s woes: More of the same

Apart from trying to maneuver between weak growth and tight fiscal (and monetary) policy, South Africa’s economy will have to continue to address certain persistent problems in 2017. Unemployment is likely to remain high: The official unemployment rate rose to 27.1 percent in Q3 2016, the highest level since early 2004 (figure 5).

High unemployment means that South Africa’s tax-paying population will remain relatively low, making balancing the fiscal budget difficult. Another problem is a shortage of skilled labour. This problem is rooted in a weak education system.

According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s 2015 ranking of education systems, South Africa ranks 75 out of a list of 76. Furthermore, inequality in South Africa continues to remain stark, as indicated by the country’s Gini coefficient score of 0.66–0.69, one of the highest readings in the world. Infrastructure shortcomings also continue to plague the country.

The South African minister of finance, in his October MTBPS, committed to adding revenue through tax measures; allocating additional government expenditure to post-school education, health services, and social protection; and continuing investment in infrastructure. He also forecasts weak but improved growth of 1.3 percent in 2017. Though this is encouraging, South Africa will have to do a lot more if it is to meet its National Development Plan goals by 2030.

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South Africa

Tito Mboweni’s Budget for the Tough Times: Planting the seeds of future economic success

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Finance Minister, Tito Mboweni, delivered South Africa’s 2019 Budget on 20 February – against a challenging economic backdrop of 1.5% growth, a deficit forecast valued at 4.5% of GDP in 2019-20, and the ongoing Eskom power crisis. The budget acknowledged the difficult issues facing the South African economy but included a range of measures to help solve them, including numerous changes to the tax regime and the introduction of a carbon fuel tax.

Mboweni took a firm, practical approach in his 2019 statement and signaled that the time has come for decisive action. Striking a hopeful tone, the Finance Minister pointed out that his budget did not include “quick fixes” but was a way to “plant the seeds” of future economic success.

The budget can only be seen as a budget for the tough times. It is a budget that keeps an eye on the elections, without being a spendthrift. Though very little was given away to any one sector, given the constraints, it should be said that there was a lot of common sense in the narration.

The most notable announcement to come out of the budget is the introduction of a “chief reorganization officer” for all state-owned entities (SOEs) seeking a government guarantee. This is common sense. Under business as usual, SOEs have gone on spending without regard for the liabilities they were imposing on the general discus. Leaders of these companies went out and fulfilled political objectives that did not have any relation to South Africa’s reality of economic struggle and difficulties.

Eskom’s decadence is especially galling and risky for the discus, given the rate at which the company has accumulated debt since 2007, with its debt rising from R40bn, to R420bn in 2018.

At the same time, the minister soft-landed the very necessary debate about the role that SOEs play in South Africa’s economy. In the past, the minister has made clear his aversion to the state owning some entities such as South African Airways which plays no role whatsoever in contributing to the achievement of South Africa’s developmental goals. This is a hot potato discussion in South Africa currently. With elections coming up, it is perhaps one that the government and the ruling party do not want to dabble in too much as it can be very polarizing and will open the ANC up to internal discord as there is a very strong lobby within the party against moves to privatize SOEs.

It was also notable that the minister made clear that from henceforth, government would take a stricter approach to issuing government guarantees and bailouts to SOEs for operational purposes. Even a financially illiterate person knows that banks would never fund you to buy groceries against a growing debt burden. It thus makes no sense that government has been throwing out lifelines to SOEs who are struggling to improve their performance and depending on government’s largesse for their continued operations.

The issuing of policy guidelines by the Department of Communications to the Independent Communications Agency of South Africa (ICASA) for spectrum allocation is a positive step. It follows on statements by President Cyril Ramaphosa to make the price of communications more affordable if South Africa is to achieve its ambitions of becoming an active participant in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. It is also a wink to the upcoming general elections as the price of data has been something that South Africans, especially the young, have been very vocal about.

Similarly, a fully subsidized education and training for poor students at a cost of R111.2bn is an investment in South Africa’s future. Enabling 2.8 million poor South Africans to gain access to higher learning institutions is a move in the direction, even if this affects the fiscal framework negatively in the short- to medium term.

The announcement to freeze the salaries of Members of Parliament, Provincial Members of Parliament, as well as the executive is something of a gimmick, though it makes sense symbolically. However, the announcement may portend a new way of doing things which recognizes that state leaders cannot continue to receive preferential treatment whilst the general public is expected to make ends meet.

The review of South Africa’s allowances for civil servants stationed abroad is probably justified given the difficult fiscal conditions the country is grappling with. However, the government will need to manage the review carefully to ensure that ultimately, the best skilled people are attracted to serving in the diplomatic services of the country.

Unfortunately, money is a major incentive for accepting a posting to a place such as Mauritania, Burundi or Russia. The same care should be exercised in managing the public sector wage bill as government is already struggling to attract the most talented. Delivery against the important objectives that government has set requires good minds, and absolute personal commitment to serving the South African public. The best talented will not forsake the potential for high pay in the private sector for a place that has a bad reputation, and which has bad salaries. This is a fact!

Reducing the size of the public service is a good decision. The president and his cabinet will require strong backing from the entire ANC and alliance to make this happen. We know that South Africa’s labor unions are very vigilant against job losses. The mere whiff of restructuring at Eskom was enough to motivate the National Union of Metalworkers of South Africa (NUMSA) to picket Eskom, even in the absence of a definite pronouncement about laying off workers.

Similarly, government was forced to walk back any latent ambitions to downsize the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC), against the wishes of the board of directors, to placate the Communications Workers Union (CWU) which declared in no uncertain terms its displeasure at the plans of the corporation to reduce the workforce.

It is encouraging to hear that President Ramaphosa took an active, detailed interest in the preparation of the Budget. This probably speaks to the anxiety the president has about ensuring that the important programs that he announced during his State of the Nation Address are properly resourced. It also speaks the urgency with which the president views the matter of stabilizing South Africa’s economy.

 

  • Thembinkosi Gcoyi

Managing Director

Frontline Africa Advisory

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